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About the Author

Ladislav Kudlacek
Education project manager (Czech Republic)

Political Scientist and Economist. I worked for human rights and humanitarian NGO in India and for international NGO People in Need based in the Czech Republic as a Programme Manager for Afghanistan. In present time I work as an Education Manager. I studied Economics in Tomas Bata University and Political Science in Masaryk University in the Czech Republic and in the University of Delhi in India and Humanitarian and International Law in Helsinki University in Finland.

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Indian Democracy in Manipur – Human Rights Out of Control

Published 21st April 2010 - 0 comments - 3919 views -

Indian Democracy in Manipur – Human Rights Out of Control

Lack of human rights in Indian state Manipur have been destroying step by step the economic development and local peoples’ quality of life. Manipur is over 40 years unknown symbol of disorder and human tragedy and disillusion. The reason is on the side of Manipuri rebels (guerillas groups) and also on the side of Indian forces and government. “Manipur is very beautiful country with lovely nature but with lots of tragedy which have been ignored by the world as well as whole India for many years,” Esther comments the situation of her own home.

Terrorism in Manipur

Manipur is one of the smallest state in India. However, there has been always quite strong feeling that Manipur is not part of India. The cultural and historical heritage is closer to Burma and Southeast Asia than to India. People there think that the act which Manipur became part of the Union was illegal. A separatist insurgency began in 1964, although momentum to a more violent phase did not occur until 1978 when Manipur got its statehood inside India. Moreover, this separatist guerrillas struggle degenerated to terrorism which profit from disorder and peoples tragedy. “Kidnapping, murders and blackmails together with training of child solders made from them jailbirds and terrorists,” comments it Esther.

However, the tragedy makers are not only these terrorist groups. There must be blame also the Indian forces and government. Most of the criminal cases like murder, raping etc. have been made by Indian forces. Solders are usually not called to justice. The reason is government behaviour which do not act to protect ordinary Manipuri. Moreover, there is a law which legalized all this criminal cases done by military. It calls Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act from the year 1958 which gives incredible power to the Indian forces in the area given under this law.

Human rights and economy 

The law is continuously criticizing by human rights NGOs as well as by other international community. The act has been criticized by Human Rights Watch as a “tool of state abuse, oppression and discrimination.” On 23 March 2009, UN Commissioner for Human Rights Navanethem Pillay asked India to repeal the Armed Forces Special Powers Act. She termed the law as “dated and colonial-era law that breach contemporary international human rights standards.” Probably only international community and the pressure of NGO and other civil movement can bring the law cancellation.

In spite of these criticism and also internal protest, this law is still valid and legalized the state violence. The people in Manipur must to suffer from separatist as well as state terrorism. Moreover, this has incredible impact on Manipur economy. The tourism is very poor and totally out of its potential grows; industry and business go down too. Government reduces the free movement of foreign by giving special permission and by other rules which must to be following. This cannot help to economy. People have problem to find good jobs and the escape from this poverty is only out of Manipur. “My parents sent me to Delhi because I have the future here. In Manipur I have only fear from terrorism and Indian forces,” said Ester. She is an Indian refugee inside India. 


Category: Human Rights | Tags:


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