We all can agree upon the fact that programs, aid, projects and subsidies are tremendously needed in the motion of development. The thing is however that right after a project ends , a structure is needed to be left so that it can proceed its existence within the problematic sphere. Other condition is that the project needs to work independently and thus can go on further within the environment it was created. And this appears to be the hardest part - to preserve the project, as an idea and to be sure that the people will know how to use it with purpose, adequately.
Only experience can teach us how not to repeat our failures...
Hereunder I would like to draw everyone's attention on some failed historical projects, sponsored by different donors, in the context of Africa. The reasons for the unsatisfying results are different - corruption, no need of such projects, no coordination, misunderstandings, not enough historical and cultural knowledge etc. :
1. Project: Lesotho Highlands water project
Donor: World Bank, European Investment Bank, African Development Bank
Cost: $3.5 billion
Where it went wrong: The project to divert fresh water from the mountains for sale to South Africa and for electricity began in 1986. But the electricity proved too expensive for most people, and the diversion of so much water caused environmental and economic havoc downstream. The development fund raised from selling the water was shut down in 2003. The courts convicted three of the world's largest construction firms on corruption charges and the project's chief executive was jailed. Tens of thousands of people whose lives were ruined by the diversion are still waiting for compensation.
2.Project: Office du Niger, Mali
Cost: More than $300 million over 50 years
Where is went wrong: The goal in 1932 was to irrigate 2.47 million acres to grow cotton and rice and develop hydropower in the Mali desert. More than 30,000 people were forced to move to the desert to work on the largest aid project attempted by French colonial authorities. The African workers largely ignored French attempts to change traditional agricultural practices. By 1982, only 6 percent of the region was developed and the infrastructure was falling apart. The World Bank took over the project in 1985 and has shown limited success with rice farming. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22380448/
The following conclusions are implications made on global scale :
- projects in the agricultural sphere - easily operated and assimilated from people
- insufficient knowledge leads to great mistakes and losses
- need of better distribution of finances
- education means future